Ebola virus disease (EVD), simply know as Ebola or called as Ebola hemorrhagic fever, is a rare and deadly virus affecting humans and other primates like Gorillas. The natural reservoir of Ebola virus is believed to be bats, specially fruits bats. It is identified that it can transmit between people and from animal to people with body fluids like blood, organs and also material and surfaces (needles, syringe, Clothing) contaminated with these fluids.
Ebola virus (EBOV) is one of six known virus species within the genus Ebolavirus and four of these (Bundibugyo ebolavirus, Sudan ebolavirus, Tai Forest ebolavirus and Zaire ebolavirus) cause Ebola virus disease (EVD) in human and other primates.
01 – Bombali ebolavirus.
02 – Bundibugyo ebolavirus.
03 – Reston ebolavirus.
04 – Sudan ebolavirus.
05 – Tai Forest ebolavirus
06 – Zaire ebolavirus (EBOV)
Sign, Symptoms and Incubation period.
The amount of time between infection and the onset of symptoms range from two (2) days to Three (3) weeks. However recent mathematical models reveal that around 5% of case take more than 21 days to show up. within this time of period people may show following symptoms,
- Sore throat
- Muscle pain
Also, they show decrease in function of kidneys and liver, and most of the time people start to bleed internally and externally. Usually it begins five (5) to seven (7) days after the first symptoms.
Recover will start between seven (7) and Fourteen (14) days after first symptom while the death follows six (6) to Sixteen (16) days. The death rate is average of 50 % of infected people.
If recovered, often they may face long term health problems like, joint pains, muscular pain, menstrual problems, hair loss, hearing loss, vision problems, sleep disturbance.
The first Ebola Virus Disease outbreaks occurred 1976 in Nzara, South Sudan and the second in Yambuku, Democratic Republic of the Congo in same year.
It is found that mainly three kind of bats, namely Franquet’s epauletted fruit bat, the hammer-head bat and the little collared fruit bats, are the natural carrier of the ebolavirus. However, the bats show no symptoms of the virus themselves and spread the virus without being affected by it.
It is believed that the virus is transmitted between people only by direct contact with blood and other body fluids like mucus, Vomit, sweat, tears, breast milk, Urine, feces. The main entry points may include mouth, nose, eyes, cuts and abrasions.
To control the spread of Ebola virus requires more society engagement and high coordinated health management services. this may include finding of infected persons and their close contact, quick medical and laboratory services, right care for infected people and proper disposal of dead bodies.
As of July 2015, no medication has been proven effective for treating Ebola, However, in august 2019 two experimental treatment (REGN-EB3 and mAb114) were found to be 90 % effective.
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